Alienation of Affection – Interference with marriage can cost big bucks in North Carolina

Non-lawyers are often surprised to learn that a spouse can sue for money damages in North Carolina based on allegations of emotional harm caused by a third party to the maritime relationship. These lawsuits for "alienation of affection" and / or "criminal conversation" are usually bought by the innocent spouse against the guilty spouse's lover; but an alienation action may also be bought against someone like an in-law or other near relative who has advised a defecting spouse to leave the marriage relationship. There is a three year statute of limitation for criminal conversation and alienation of affection, pursuant to NCGS Section 1-52 (5). This statute begins on the date that alienation occurred, which is determined by a court on a case-by-case basis.

Fairly high-dollar awards in such cases have existed here for a number of years, a fact not generally known. As long ago as 1926, for instance, a jury in Macon County rendered a verdict in the amount of $ 12,000 against the lover of plaintiff's wife. A 1931 jury in Forsyth County held against plaintiff's wife's father-in-law for $ 38,000. A Rowan County jury awarded $ 30,000 against a husband's girlfriend in 1969. In 1982, our Court of Appeals affirmed a jury verdict in the amount of $ 25,000 in compensatory damages and another $ 25,000 in punitive damages. A 1990 Forsyth County jury award of $ 300,000 in punitive damages for alienation was sustained on appeal, even though the court stuck the compensatory award for $ 200,000.

In the past several years, however, North Carolina juries have become even more generous, in 1997 alone handing down $ 1.2 million against a female paramour in Forsyth County and awarding another jilted wife $ 1 million in Alamance County and a Deceived husband $ 243,000 in Wake County. In late 1999, a judge in Durham County valued compensatory damages in a case bought by a husband against his wife's lover at less than $ 3,000 in compensatory damages but the judge still awarded $ 40,000 in punitive damages on the criminal conversation claim. Since our Supreme Court denied to abolish these causes of action in 1984 and since our legislature has also shown no strong interest in doing so since that time, sizeable damage rewards remain a real possibility in North Carolina. At the present time, more than 200 alienation actions are filed in an average year.

Conduct after date of separation

The date of separation is an important date in alienation of affection and criminal conversation cases. Our courts have decided that conduct that occurs before the date of separation is relevant to these types of actions. This is due a claim of alienation of affection must prove that, among other things, the defensive's malicious conduct contributed to or caused the loss of affection in the marriage. The parties to the marriage must still be together in order to prove this claim. It is important to note, however, that conduct which occurs after the date of separation may also be considered by a judge, if that conduct corroborates the conduct that occurred before the date of separation. In criminal conversation actions, by contrast, post-separation conduct is even more important. Conduct which occurs after the date of separation can be considered by a court to not only corroborate behavior that occurred before the date of separation, but is sufficient on its own to maintain an action for criminal conversation.

North Carolina is in the minority

The existence of continuing cases of this sort in North Carolina appears to surprise lawyers and residents in many other states because we are now in a very small minority of jurisdictions – including Hawaii, Illinois, Mississippi, New Mexico, South Dakota and Utah – which still recognize both alienation of affection and criminal conversation. As of July 2003, 43 states and the District of Columbia had abolished the cause of action for alienation of affection. The states vary broadly in the way they deal with this issue: in some states, only one of the two causes of action continues to exist, and then proof of the claim and / or damages have been significantly curtailed in recent years. None of these reforms has altered the status favoring such claims in this State.

Criminal Conversation

Criminal conversation is the name for a civil lawsuit sounding in tort (a kind of injury to the person) based on sexual intercourse between the defendant and the plaintiffiff's spouse. Criminal conversation is something like a "strict liability tort" because the only things the plaintiff has to prove are (1) an act of arbitration and (2) the existence of a valid marriage between the plaintiff and the adulterous spouse, and (3) the bringing of the lawsuit within the applicable statute of limitations. For all practical purposes, there are no obvious defenses to a timely claim for criminal conversation, provided the claimiff can prove a valid marriage and intercourse between the defendant and plaintiff's spouse. It is not a defense that: the defensive did not know the other person was married, that the person consented to the sex, that the stainiff was separated from his or her spouse, that the other person actually seduced the defensive, that the marriage was an unhappy one, that the defensive's sex with the spouse did not otherwise impact on the stainiff's marriage, that blatiff had mistreated the spouse, or that the plaintiff had also been unfaithful. It might be a defense that the plaintiff "consented" to the illicit intervention; but defensive would have to show that this approval or encouragement had preceded the dated extramarital conduct.

Alienation of Affection

An action for alienation of affection, on the other hand, does not require proof of extramarital sex. Despite this difference, an alienation claim tends to be more difficult to establish because it is comprised of more elements and there are some additional defenses. To succeed on an alienation claim, the plaintiff has to show that (1) the marriage entailed love between the spouses in some degree; (2) the spousal love was alienated and destroyed; and (3) defensive's malicious conduct contributed to or caused the loss of affection. It is not necessary to show that the defensive set out to destroy the marital relationship, but only that he or she intendsally engaged in actions which would foreseeably impact on the marriage. Thus, defensive has a defense against an alienation claim – but not to a claim for criminal conversation – where it can be shown that defensive did not know that the object of his or her affections was in fact married. As with a criminal conversation action, it is not a defense that the non-innocent spouse consented to defendant's conduct. But it might be a defense that the defensive was not the active and aggressive seducer. If defendant's conduct was somehow inadvertent, the plaintiffiff would be unable to show intentional or malicious action. But prior financial problems do not establish a defense without such unhappiness had reached a level of negating love between the spouses.

Criticism of these laws

Critics of such laws call them obsolete methods for legislating morality (despite the fact that most criminal laws could be said to legislate morality). Critics also say the laws do not fulfill their purpose of protecting maritime relationships, inequitably punish only one of two guilty parties, and serve as an excuse for blackmail or forced settlements. The critics add that such suits can also be misused by embittered spouses seeking vengeance against a third party interferer and that injured spouses can not possibly be compensated for a lost marriage. On the other hand, defenders point to the virtual non-existence of criminal prosecutions for adultery in current American culture, a need to uphold the sanctity of the marriage vows through some kind of formal legal sanction for violation of moral promises, and the potential deterrence of rampant extramarital affairs by means of the threat of monetary damage suits. Defenders also point out that adultery has a very long history of illegality; and that it is there appropriate for the civil laws of criminal conversation and alienation of affections to perpetuate Western culture's longstanding objection, by law and by custom, of extramarital affairs.

Whether one thinks it is a good or a bad situation for North Carolina to continue to recognize such claims by spouses claiming injury to their marriages may greatly depend, then, on one's views of the need in the 1990s for protection of the marital relationship through civil litigation against the non-spouse wrongdoer and for monetary remedies for the alleged hards caused to that relationship. Indeed, some commentators have stated that high jury verdicts and the renewed popular interest in lawsuits for alienation of affections and criminal conversation may signal a growing societal disaffection with overly permissive sexual standards and a desire for stricter enforcement of family values. Pro-family writers believe it important that deceived spouses have litigation-oriented opportunities for vindication and that society retain this acknowledgment, however marginalized at present, of the supremacy of the institution of marriage against unwarranted intrusion. Ultimately, of course, these are all subjective and philosophical viewpoints likely to vary importantly from person to person. Visit for more information.

What Happens at the Court Hearing? Information About Rhode Island Landlord-Tenant Law & Evictions

The eviction court hearing is the final, most important part of the eviction process. In an eviction for non-payment of rent, the eviction hearing will occur on the ninth day after filing the complaint. For all other types of evictions, the eviction hearing will only occur after a Motion to Assign has been filed with the court.

On the day of the hearing you should make every effort to arrive on time. The hearing will begin promptly at 9:00AM. If you are even a few minutes tardy, you may miss the call of your case. Be sure to find the appropriate court room, as there are many different courts in session on any given day. If you do not know the appropriate court, you should locate one of the court clerks and ask. If you are represented by counsel, your attorney will likely arrange a time and place to meet in the morning.

Before you enter the courtroom, be certain to turn off all cell phones and pagers! If your cell phone/pager rings during the hearing, you will likely be asked to leave the courtroom. Occasionally, the bailiff will confiscate the offending device and hold it until the end of the day.

The court session will begin once the Judge enters the courtroom. The first order of business is the call of the calendar. During the call of the calendar, the judge, or the clerk, will read the name of each case scheduled to be heard on that day. When you hear the name of you case, you should stand up and announce your presence in the courtroom. Typically, a simple “here” or “Defendant/Plaintiff” is sufficient. If you are represented by an attorney, your attorney will handle this portion of the hearing.

If only one of the parties, either the Plaintiff or the Defendant, attends the hearing, the case will be called, “Ready Formal.” If you are the Defendant and this occurs, the case will be dismissed. If you are the Plaintiff and this occurs, you will be able to proceed against the Defendant on an oral proof of claim. You will likely be successful, as there is no Defendant to assert a defense, as long as you have satisfied the legal formalities of the eviction process.

If both parties attend the hearing, the case will be called, “Ready Contest.” Once the Judge has completed the call of the calendar, the Judge will allow the parties to exit the courtroom in order to begin settlement discussions. If the parties are able to reach a settlement, the parties should prepare a stipulation and present it to the bailiff. (Blank stipulations can be found at the front of the courtroom.) If the parties cannot reach a settlement, then the parties should reenter the courtroom for a full hearing.

Legal Notice: Slepkow, Slepkow, & Associates has prepared the materials contained on this website for information purposes only. This information concerns Rhode Island law only and should not be construed as legal advice. No one should rely on any of the information or advice contained on this website without obtaining legal counsel. Slepkow, Slepkow, & Associates is not responsible for any material contained on those sites to which we have linked. The Rhode Island Supreme Court licenses their lawyers in the general practice of law. This Court does not license or certify any lawyer as an expert or specialist in any field of practice.

East Carolina Pirate Fan Base Serves As Model for College Football Fans


In 1999 Hurricane Floyd ravaged eastern North Carolina leaving behind in its wake a path of destruction and misery. Hurricane Floyd has been called the worst natural disaster to ever hit North Carolina. Lives were lost, families were up rooted and towns were left to deal with the destruction of a once in every 500 year flood.

One eastern North Carolina town hit particularly hard by Hurricane Floyd was Greenville, North Carolina. Greenville is home to East Carolina University and its 26,000 student population. East Carolina University serves as a vital economic and cultural engine for the region and its people. East Carolina football is also vital to the region as it provides both a financial and emotional boost to those living in eastern North Carolina.

Both the University and its football team however, were deadly significant blows immediately after the storm. The flooding from Hurricane Floyd was so fundamental in Greenville, for example, that it forced ECU to shut down classes for nearly two weeks. The damage also kept the Pirate Football team from returning home after their away game the previous week in which they played and beat the USC Gamecocks in Columbia, South Carolina.

The Pirates, who were scheduled to play the number 9 ranked Miami Hurricanes in Greenville the following weekend, had to move the game to Carter Finely Stadium in Raleigh NC (two hour drive from Greenville), home to the North Carolina State Wolfpack.

On Sept 25, 1999, 46,000 thousand people, the vast majority of what were ECU fans, packed Carter Finely stadium and watched one of the most important football games in East Carolina history. Many of the fans who were in attendance that night had lost their homes, personal affiliations and means of income due to the ravages of the storm. The fans who had traveled to Raleigh to see the Pirates play had traveled to witness more than a football game, they had also traveled to find a glint of hope. Time and time again ECU had beaten teams they were not expected to beat and now more than ever the ECU faithful needed Pirate football to create a special form of magic on the gridiron. Magic that could transcend the difficulties that they were experiencing if only for a few hours on this Saturday evening in September into something more positive than the previous days storm drama.

Those who attended the game in Raleigh and those who watched it on tv had their loyalty rewarded with an improbable 27-23 come from behind Pirate victory. More than just a win over 9th ranked Miami, however, the game also provided Pirate fans with a promise about the future. A promise to the people of eastern North Carolina that if ECU football could over come great odds and emerge from the chaos of Hurricane Floyd as winners, they could as well. ECU's victory over the "Hurricanes" of Miami (Hollywood could not have written a better script) symbolized for the battered people of eastern North Carolina that rebuilding their lives from the terrible destruction of Floyd could and would be done.

ECU's win over Miami also put an exclamation point on a very long two weeks for the region and culinated in what one North Carolina columnist called, "ECU's Gipper Game". In reality however, East Carolina had been winning Gipper Games for much of its football life. The Pirates had learned early on that they were capable of competing at a top level of collegiate football even if they were constantly battling financial limitations and recruiting at a level that instilled little to no fear in the hearts of teams that they often did battle with.


With the almost mystical experience ECU fans had with Pirate football in the after math of Hurricane Floyd and the history of ECU football playing the role of David to someone elses Goliath (and winning their good share of these battles) it is fair to write that football at ECU is more than just football. While this is true at many schools, there seems to be a symbiotic relationship between ECU football and the region that is hard to articulate but is palpable and present none the less. A relationship that not only permeates through the eastern part of the state but one that consistently captures the imagination and loyalty of the student body and alumni as well.

When students get to ECU for example, they are quickly immersed into the transcendent like narrative of the team and are asked to become part of the story by participating in the ECU narrative themselves. The strong bond that is created between the team and the community can be seen in the attendance at footballl games. (averaging a little over 44,000, down a bit from 50,000 a few years and second in the Gang of 5 behind BYU) and in the fact the East Carolina reports the largest student booster club in the country at 10,000 members.


The two greatest obstacles facing Gang of 5 schools at the moment are monetary limitations and lack of brand exclusement. Gang of 5 schools are constantly being asked to do more with less money and most are being asked to do more with far fewer fans than they would like to have.

While ECU faces many of the same financial issues that the rest of the Gang of 5 schools do, it does not share the type of attendance (of course attendance can always improve at most schools) and fan apathy issues that most of the Gang of 5 currently encounter.

In addition to the more emotional aspects of brand loyalty among ECU fans, there are some concrete steps that East Carolina has taken over the last 40 years that have put the school at the top of the G Five fan pyramid.

Steps that start with a commitment to win that begins with the school Chancellor and tricks down to everything the University believes in and stands for.

More than anything else however, the football team has given ECU fans a strong story to embrace. In return, ECU fans have given the team and the school their loyalty and trust. In mid of this important process East Carolina has created a sports community that many G5 schools are expecting to emulate one day themselves. Stay tuned.

RI Divorce – The New DR-6 Form Unleashed

Anyone wishing to file for divorce in the State of Rhode Island must fill out a financial form known as the “Statements of Assets and Liabilities” otherwise known as the DR-6 Form.

Quite some time ago I wrote about this form to assist people in understanding it, because it was less than clear what the form was intended for, what it was actually used for, and to try to eliminate to at least a small degree some of the mystery surrounding the confusing Rhode Island DR-6 form.

In October of 2011, Rhode Island’s DR-6 Statement of Assets and Liabilities form was completely overhauled and a new DR-6 form is now required. The previous DR-6 form consisted of the front and back side of a single page. The new and improved DR-6 form is now nine (9) pages long and has been created in the form of an Excel spreadsheet which is available for download from the Rhode Island Family Court’s website.

The new DR-6 is substantially more extensive and requests more specific information about virtually every form of asset, debt, income, expense and investment.

Whether Rhode Island’s new Statement of Assets and Liabilities is actually an improvement is an issue that remains up for debate. However, in the very least the form requires a substantial amount of disclosure from all plaintiffs and to the extent the DR-6 filing is enforced by the court, a subsequent disclosure to the same extent by a defendant.

As with its predecessor form, there are no specific instructions for the completion of the Rhode Island Family Court’s new DR-6 form. Though the detailed nature of the form might suggest that it is no longer confusing. You might change your mind though once you try to fill one out on your own.

The confusion lies in the fact that it is entirely possible for an item of income to also just as easily fit into a subcategory of asset. The same concept applies to a debt item which might also fit into a category or subcategory of liabilities. Common sense would seem to indicate that inclusion of the same item in both the debt section and the liability section would create a double entry and that the form’s creators would have no reason to create a form which duplicates information.

The conclusion that can be drawn from this is that the form’s creators only intended you to include any item which might fall under both areas into one of the areas.

So what is the confusion, right? Which area should it be included in? Should you include the item in the first section that seems appropriate and leave it out from the second section that applies? Or should you do it in the reverse order and wait until you come to see if you come to a second section that might apply and place it there?

One would think that there would be appropriate direction for this question. I tried to use common sense and my analytical mind to determine the best category and/or section that should be selected when working with various debt items. I found that even if I wanted to discern the best category and/or section to put an item in, I found that numerous items applied equally well to two categories and/or sections on the DR-6 form. I found, in the course of analyzing the form with actual information that there were even three semi-common items in many divorce financial structures that might fit equally well into three (3) sections of the DR-6 form.

So I made inquiry to one member of the committee that created the form about this problem. I was told to just put it in one of the spots. So I inquired further as to whether instructions were going to be created for Rhode Island’s new DR-6 Statement of Assets and Liabilities Form. Unfortunately, no instructions are anticipated for the form to assist either attorneys or the general public.

Regrettably, this article may raise more questions than it actually answers. Yet, if anything, it will confirm for you that you are not the only one with concerns about this form and the confusion it creates for attorneys and the general public as well.

If you look closely at the form, there is one thing I am thankful I can clear up for you. If the intention of the form is to provide calculations for the parties and the Rhode Island Family Court that are reliable, then you cannot merely put an item in one category or section of the form and leave it at that. The fact is that the form makes numerous calculations when used in its original Excel format.

If an item is not included in the category or section that the form creators “intended” on this new DR-6 form, then the resulting calculations performed by the DR-6 spreadsheet will be incorrect. One number might be overly inflated while another might be understated.

It would only take two or three items placed in an “unintended” category or section to substantially throw off the resulting calculations in the spreadsheet. Depending upon how the parties and/or the family court judge relies upon or interprets the DR-6 calculations, this confusion created by the new DR-6 form could prevent settlement between the parties or mislead the court unintentionally into believing the finances of one party are different then they actually are.

Rhode Island’s new and improved DR-6 Statement of Assets and Liabilities is more detailed and extensive than ever and has positive possibilities toward resolving family law cases, yet without instructions for this new form, the confusion nevertheless remains.

North Carolina State Fair Filled with Southern Flavors

You'll find the North Carolina State Fair each October in Raleigh, NC. It's a ten day event with lots of variety regardless of whether you prefer the games, rides, free entertainment, fireworks, carnival food, or just love to look at the cute animals that are bought in. When you come to visit the fair you'll find two hotels that are within walking distance of the fairgrounds, a Ramada Inn and Comfort Suites. However both of these hotels fill up fast so you may want to make reservations well in advance.

Food at the fair consists of a mixture of carnival flavors and southern comfort. You will not only find Carolina BBQ and Fried Catfish but you'll be ruining your sugar free diet on a snack of deep fried Candy Bar. Yes, an entire candy bar is frozen, dipped in batter and fried to golden goodness. On the fairgrounds there is also the Cinnamon Bun Saloon, which is rumored to have the best Cinnamon Buns and Hot Coffee at the fair.

If you like racing come out out the agricultural impact Circle C Racing Pigs. Several times daily at the Hogway Speedway you can watch racing potbelly pigs, waddling ducks, and pygmy goats heading round the race track.

The Village of Yesteryear is very popular along the fairgoers. There are usually more than 75 exhibits all demonstrating activities from the past. Craft artists not only display fine quilts, needlework and leatherwork, they sell it to interested fairgoers. Come watch artists spin wool into yarn, weave the yarn into cloth and make that cloth into useable objects. There is also a range o Native American pottery, beadwork and carvings.

Folk music is a big hit at this fair and the Folk Festival is a competition that runs the course of the entire fair. Musicians from all over come to the festival in order to compete for the Bascom Lamar Lunsford Trophy. The award is given to those persons who best represent North Carolina's musical heritage. You'll find bluegrass, square dancing and even clogging at this event.

While at the fair do not forget to check out the free fireworks every single night. Your kid's may feel left out if you do not head over to the Kiddieland Fun Park or stop and chat with on the Mobile Robots that roam the fair.

Rhode Island History by the Side of the Road

The early settlers of Rhode Island possessed a vibrant spirit of independence, a love of the land and its fertile resources, a courage rivaled only by their love of adventure, and a will to protect and defend their development which seriously directly out of the conditions of their way of life. The place names grow from a pragmatic approach to map-making, reflecting the topography, landmarks, vegetation, and history of its predominant settling families and the contributions that made historically, industrially, and socially to the 'birthing "of this region.

Research across the hills and dales of what was once King's County, finds a chronicle of Washington County history and topography is reflected by her road and place names. Topography was often the clearest means of eliminating a region, although early on proved confusing at times. The Pettaquamscutt Purchase, named for the stream between Saunderstown and Hammond Hill in Kingstown, was made in 1657 for £ 16 by two land companies, one headed by John Hull, a Bostonian goldsmith. The boundary was disputed for years by Connecticut and Rhode Island. The Rhode Island men said that when the Narragansett River was mentioned in the charter the stream referred to was the Pawcatuck River near the Great Swamp.

These quarlers occupied English courts for many years and revolved around the meaning of one name. During the dispute most of the French Huguenots, who had settled Frenchtown where names like [Marquis de] Lafayette and Mawney (de Moine) flourish, departed for Connecticut soil, but two remained behind and actually were among the signers of the Pettaquamscutt Purchase.

In what might have been less populated areas, full of steep grades and untamed landscapes, regional distinction was made with road names like "Gravelly Hill," "Sand Turn," and "Riverside". Where certain vegetation was prominent, names like "Bittersweet," "Butternut," and "Lindenbrook" were observed. More prominent landmarks like Tower Hill, where commissioners were able "to go over to Narragansett and take view of such places there and thereabout that are fit for plantations," as instructed so by the General Assembly which met in Newport in 1672, were given more specific names. The commission had met at the Bull house, which was later destroyed by fire and its inmates killed by the Indians, this being the initiating action of the Great Swamp fight with King Philip.

The Boston Neck region, or Namcook in Indian, was the rich strip of shore between the Pettaquamscutt River and the Bay, and north of the inlet. Because the land was so vital to the maintenance of the early settlements, its fertilizer infamy was given a specific notation. Allegiances to the crowns of England hark back in place names like "Kingstown," "Charlotte," "Carolina Back," and "Charlestown" with reference to England's King Charles II, and revering Queen Anne, "Queen's River" and "Queen's Valley . " Kingston was called "Little Rest" until 1826, probably because there were five taverns in close proxies to the King's County [after King George III] Court House. In the days of travel by horseback, taverns and inns were frequented by the legislators who traveled to Little Rest. The British occupied Newport for three years during the Revolutionary War, and another center of government was needed. The General Assembly at Little Rest became an active and significant center in the fight for independence. Not until 1781 was King's County renamed to Washington County in "perpetual and polite remembrance" of Washington's "Distinguished services and heroic actions."

Particular uses of roads and roads are noted in names like "Railroad Bridge," "Post Road," and "Old Coach Road." Other names originally listed in this category, "Miner," "Cook," and "Carpenter," were found to be family names.

The Native American's part in the settlement of Rhode Island is evident in the area around Slocumville called "Indian Corner", where it appears passages of the tribe still exist as evidenced by the giant carved totems standing outside a modern house. Located near Indian Corner, legend has it, there is a rock from which blood is sometimes seen to flow. The corner takes its name from the battle once fought there between the Narragansett and the whites. Many were buried near the rock, and a number of bones have been found over the years. Other names like "Tuckahoe," "Yawgoo," and "Tomahawk" appear there. The Indians' practice of scalping their victims was not discovered by the Native American, but was taught to them by the French. Until that time, the tributes cut off the entire head to symbolize their victory in war. Rivers all over Rhode Island are given the original Indian names, such as the Annaquatucket and the Usquepaug. The Narragansetts were previously peaceful tribe until their struggle to survive disease, starvation, and loss of their native lands forced upon them by the Puritans. Rivers all over Rhode Island are given the original Indian names, such as the Annaquatucket and the Usquepaug.

Five white men from Newport, the original signers of the Pettaquamscutt Purchase, settled the region. In 1657 a tract of land was purchased, for sixty pounds, or about $ 32.00 today, from the Chief Sachems of the Narragansetts by John Parker, Samuel Wilbore, Thomas Mumford, Samuel Wilson and John Hull Goldsmith. This land, known as the Pettaquamscutt Purchase, was located in the town of South Kingston and measured about twelve square miles.

Large tracts of land remained in families for centuries due to the secure Rhode Island laws. No land could be attached for personal debt as long as the owner was a Rhode Island resident. Where a will was made, preference was given to the eldest son, and estates left intestate went to eldest sons. Laws were written in favor of the landowner, and owning land at a value of £ 200 was necessary to vote. Such laws created a society of wealth and distinction, unparallel laws in the other colonies north of the Mason-Dixon Line. Indeed, the Narragansett Plantations, as the area was called, had more similarities to Virginia and South Carolina plantation owners than their neighbors in Massachusetts.

The most significant feature in the naming of this county is the legacy left by the prominent citizens of the Colony. Cartographers paid homage to influential families and the industry they afforded the region. The historian, Roger E. Potter, a descendant of James Potter, owner of a cotton and wool mill in 1800 that specialized in "jean cloth", and John Potter, once an owner of the Kingston Inn in 1755, has said, "All that remains are the printed references to remind us of our hardworking and enterprising forbears who have given us such a good heritage. "

The Hazards of Boston Neck, the Perrys of Kingstown, the Saunders for whom Saunderstown is named, and the Robinsons just south of Saunderstown are only a few of the repeating names seen over and over on road signs, historical plots, and their written recantations. Tom Hazard, learned and cultured, purchased Boston Neck in 1738 for $ 29.00 an acre. His farm became a successful operation with 4000 sheep for woolen and linen production, 150 cows that supplied milk and 24 cheeses a day, employing 12 women and their helpers just in the dairy alone. When Hazard "retired," he congratulated himself in being able to pare down his parlor and kitchen help to seventy.

Many repetitive names have ties to their honorable service for their country in its fight for independence, not the least of these is the Perry family, for which Perryville is named. Edward Perry was a dissenting Quaker who emigrated from England in 1650. His opinions continued to cause him trouble, but he wrote religious works and became a prominent citizen. His brother Benjamin, grandfather of Oliver Hazard Perry, the famous naval hero from the Battle of Lake Erie, was a prominent Quaker and one of five men who paid Ebenezar Slocum 40 shillings for the site of the Quaker Meeting House on Tower Hill Road. Samuel Perry, son of Edward, died in 1716, leaving a will of £ 700 with 1500 acres of real estate and a gristmill to his son, James. This was a basic element in the economy of early America. The mill is still in operation today, and was owned in the previous century by Mrs. Rowland Robinson, whose family history follows.

Rowland Robinson was a wealthy well-known planter, slave runner, and West Indies tradesman who brought a shipment of African slaves into South Ferry about 1710. His intention was to keep the strong workers to help build his new house. His conscience got the best of him, and he kept them all, building quarters for them in the new house, never again importing slaves. Jamestown is still populated by many of Robinson's ancientors, making the Robinson name quite sufficient on Conanicut Island.

Saunders family members were famous shipwrights and inventors. They lived in what was "Willettstown" until so many Saunders were building boats, it eventually became known as Saunderstown. Captain John Aldrich Saunders, an ancestor of Tobias Saunders, one of the original purchasers of Misquamicut, invented the centerboard in 1813, which was not patented until 1865 by his grandson John G. Saunders. Captain Saunders, born in 1786 in Westerly, was given much criticism for his "Nonsuch," a tri-keeled 50-ton vessel [today's trimaran], 65 'long, with a draw of 5 1/2 feet and only 24 "of freeboard. In order to sail the boat close to shore for loading and off-loading, it had a broad, flat bottom and could run ashore in high water and load directly from cart or wagon. all sides. Stillman Saunders built the Newport Ferry in 1907.

Many of the ancients of these famous Rhode Island families still remain in the region their forefathers settled. Many are still active in similar professions. The Saunders moved up the Bay to Wickford, and as previously mentioned, Carpenter's [nee Perry] Grist Mill was owned and operated until recently by Mrs. Rowland Robinson.

"These were the men who with their companions made the little state,
and by their progeny helped to people it, while by marriage them
descendants have not only established a general relationship with
each other but have absorbed also the best of the outside element
that hosted homes among them during the long colonial period. "

-Edgar Mayhew Bacon, Narragansett Bay

History of Washington and Kent Counties, Rhode Island, by JR Cole, WW Preston, & Co., NY, 1889.
Narragansett Bay, by Edward Mayhew Bacon, GP Putnam & Sons NY, 1904.
Indian Names of Places in Rhode Island, by Usher Parsons, Providence, Knowles, Anthony & Co., 1861.
Writer's personal on-site research.

In Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, Hurricane Shutters Are An Essential, Not a Luxury

Cape Hatteras is on the coast of North Carolina, and is one of the most dangerous areas to sail in the world. It's part of the Outer Banks, and the dangerous waters and many storms that strike the area are the reason it's so unsafe to sail there. So many ships have been lost off Cape Hatteras that the area is known as the Graveyard of the Atlantic. It's also notorious for being frequently stuck by hurricanes that move up the east coast.

One of the worst happened in 2003, when Hurricane Isabel ravaged Hatteras island, and actually created a new inlet. The inlet already there was washed out, and Hurricane Isabel tore a new one. It took two months for the new inlet to be filled with sand, and for life on the island to return to normal. Roads, electrical lines, and water pipes were all impacted, and residents had to wait for the original inlet to be repaired before they could fix any of these.

Because Cape Hatteras is so vulnerable to storms, if you live there permanently or have a vacation home in the area, hurricane shutters are a must. Because the area is hit by tropical storms so frequently, not having them on your home is a mistake. Hurricane shutters protect your home in a variety of ways – they protect you from high winds, from pressure changes during a hurricane that can actually rip your home apart, and from missile impact.

Much of the damage to your home during storms occurs when windows or doors break and the driving rain and wind is allowed free rein. Hurricane shutters are tested to prevent this, and they are easy to secure quickly when a storm is coming. When storms are imminent, permanent hurricane shutters can be closed in a matter of minutes, and this is important in an area where storms hit so frequently.

There are many types of shutters to choose from. Some of the most popular:

Rolling shutters – Convenient, motorized shutters that close at the touch of a button. They also have a manual option so that you can open or close them in case of power outages.

Accordion shutters – Shutters that open accordion style, and fold up unobtrusively beside the sides of the windows when not in use.

Colonial shutters – Southern-style shutters that are in two parts; they come together and secure in the middle. Very popular in the south, and very attractive.

Bahama shutters – Shutters with an island flair, popular in Florida and other tropical and sub-tropical areas. They're louvered and fasten at the top of the window, allowing them to be cranked out for shade when not in use.

No matter what kind of shutter that you decide on, if you live on Cape Hatteras, they are an essential requirement for your home. The area is vulnerable to the many hurricanes and tropical storms each year. Protect your home and family, and install hurricane shutters today.

Rhode Island Divorce Tip – An Important CSS-1 Form!

Every Rhode Island divorce has it share of difficulties. One of those difficulties could be the form known as the CSS-1. The CSS-1 form is the form filed with the court's accounting unit to update all child support orders to make sure the amounts due and owed are kept up to date.

If the form is not filed and filled in appropriately then support amounts may continue to accrue at the wrong weekly or monthly garnished amount. Arrearages could accumulate with compounded interest.

Ultimily child support obligations can become confused, convoluted and even lead to alleged motives and potential incarceration for support obligations that may not even exist.

Rule of Thumb … do not forget this important and forgettable form … and make sure it's accurate, filed and not forgotten.

Without the CSS-1 you could be in hot water.

The CSS-1 form identifies for the Child Support Enforcement Accounting Unit the last Order that was issued by the Court, the amount of child support to be paid, or the amount and nature of modification of the support. The CSS-1 also tracks and updates arrearages of child support and medical support payments with details regarding who the payor is and where he or she may be found and the payee and also where he or she may be found.

The CSS-1 form identifies the parents and / or guardians and the child for whatever the support is being collected for the State's Child Support Enforcement Unit.

Why is it so important?

Imagine you are a father paying $ 250 per week in support for your child and you get laid off and are collecting unemployment. You file a Motion to Modify and thankfully get the court to modify your child support reduced down to $ 100 per week. Unfortunately you do not submit a completed CSS-1 form with the Court's current Order showing you reduction.

It's not until weeks later that you will realize the CSS-1 form was not filed properly. Your employment gets garnished $ 250 per week because that's the current Order per the last CSS-1 form filed with the court. Now you have to get the CSS-1 and a new Garnishment Order issued and submitted to the right parties. This could take 4 to 6 weeks. Meanwhile you're being garnished $ 250 per week when you can not afford it. Meanwhile, interest is also accruing each week at 12 percent per annual on the amount the computer says you owe when it should not be. The chances that you will get a refund of the money you have now overpaid are slim to none. At best you may get a credit for those monies. Yet you may still have to file a motion with the court to clear up the interest the computer says you have to pay all because they did not receive that CSS-1 form.

This is a MILD case of a CSS-1 difficulty. It is very likely that you will have to come back to court at your expense to explain why this happened and ask that the approved interested be removed from your child support account because the form was not filed.

Learn Why Market America In Greensboro, North Carolina Is Leading This Online Economy

Headquartered on the east coast of the United States is the internet marketing and product brokerage super-power Market America, Inc. Market America settled in Greensboro, North Carolina back in 1992 and has grown leaps and bounds, experiencing epic growth since, all while never look back for even a second!

JR Ridinger is an absolute genius internet mogul. JR (James Ridinger) is the orchestrator who built the footprint for the company, and since the early days, JR has compounded his passions, talents and ability to lead an ever-expanding 200,000 plus independent sales force to believe in the unbelievable.

Since inception, MA's track record has painted a canvas that has led to nothing short of complexion perfection. They are on a pace to break what has gotten to be an unofficial world record in having NEVER to experience a down quarter of loss financially – they're approaching 20 now since inception.

Although Market America's world headquarters is Greensboro, North Carolina, they have started an emerging growth pattern of migrating to other countries each of the last 3 years. First it was Canada and Australia, next was Hong Kong and Taiwan, and most recently Market Philippines opened its doors for expansion.

Things have really exploded internationally for the company. Mexico, England and many of the Latin countries have been identified as a good fit for MA's distribution model. MA's rallying cry of being built on product and powered by people® is by-no-means planning to slow down as the company approaches online history.

And just when outsiders thought MA was getting complacent and set in their ways; they just recently acquitted the ownership rights to the cyber-space powerhouse This deal is going to increase production in a way that is going to propel them into a billion dollar company, as well as double their customer base to 5.7 million.

The appeal of Market America to future business owners has much to do with their franchise-like business system that they termed the UnFranchise®. By leveraging the 'tools of technology' and 'artificial intelligence' of the internet, any current or future internet enabled entrepreneur can power their business building endeavors behind the engine of the most preeminent online shopping destination today.

Many of the highest regard internet shopping super-sites can not hold a candle to the power of the people Market America employs. With 500+ worldwide employees and 200,000+ UnFranchise® owners, you'll find that with their health and nutrition, cosmetics and skin care, anti-aging, MA Web center and Paid-2-Shop brokerage divisions, Market America world headquartered in Greensboro , North Carolina is leading the online marketplace and is fast approaching as the top-dog in online shopping.

Rhode Island Divorce Tip – Inconsistencies Part II

In a rather strange contrast to "Inconsistencies Part I" you will at times find that,

2. The same Rhode Island judge will give you different results in similar cases.

Imagine you have Judge M sitting in the Kent County Family Court. The first case in the morning for Judge M is Mr. Panadock. Mr. Panadock was picked up on a bench warrant issued for his arrest because he was $ 3,000 behind in his child support payments. He stands there with two uniformed officers and he is in handcuffs.

Now imagine you have Judge M sitting in the afternoon on the same date. Miss Jenkins enters the court on a Motion to Adjudge her in contempt and send her to the Adult Correctional Institution (ACI) because she is $ 22,000 in arrears on her child support for her two children.

The results in the two cases were entirely different. In fact, a bit too different. Mr. Panadock was asked by Judge M. what his excuse was. Mr. Panadock responded, 'I have no excuse your honor but the reason I have not been able to pay the' … Judge M cut in and was furious. in the ACI for a few days. The sheriff's took Mr. Panadock away.

MIss Jenkins came before the court and took the stand. The attorney for the children's father asked her various questions which showed that Miss Jenkins had been staying with friends, had not been applied for any form of work, was moving from place to place and was essentially avoiding her child support obligation.

Judge M was far from happy with Miss Jenkins and lectured her on the responsibility of supporting her children. Judge M. gave her two weeks to come back with a full-time job and new child support would be set requiring her to pay off the $ 22,000 arearage over time.

Do you see the inconsistency between the treatment of the cases? Now while one case is certainly nothing to base your entire opinion on, it is interesting to not the treatment of man versus woman, handcuffed versus someone who walked into court, a person with a relatively low child support arrearage versus a high child support arrearage balance .

Rhode Island Family Court is a court of equity. It is a court where judgments are expected to do what is fair under the circumstances in each case for all people. Was the treatment here equitable for both parties? Or was the treatment inequitable for both parties.

These stories are based on real court examples here in Rhode Island. Given what you know now, would you want to represent yourself?